The Iraq War & Archaeology
Reviewed Articles Archive Forty-One: First 1/2 of December 2004

This is the forty-first archive of the reviewed articles of The Iraq War & Archaeology web site.

Francis Deblauwe, Ph.D.

The articles and other information are listed chronologically, most recent first.
Almost all are accessible for free (or after a free registration) on the internet.  Each time, I try to draw attention to the most relevant tidbits of information, esp. things that were not mentioned before; occasionally, I provide some comment.  The usual warning applies: many links become defective with time.  Inclusion in the list does not in any way mean that I necessarily agree with the opinions expressed in an article.  But for a few exceptions, the occasional photos and figures accompanying reviewed articles are just hotlinked images on other web sites, in other words: do not download them or request permission to publish them from me, for I do not own the copyright to them in any way!  Please do contact the rightful owners if you would like to use them for publication purposes. Finally, for the sake of convenience, all articles and so on are assumed to have been published on US web sites unless indicated otherwise.

  • "The British 'queen' of Iraq," in BBC News (UK), December 2, 2004: "[Explorer Gertrude] Bell (1868-1926) is one of 17 great Britons featured in the 'Movers and Shakers' exhibition at the National Archives in Kew, west London." "... but despite her love of adventure she was politically conservative and joined the Anti Suffrage League." "... she was the only woman drafted as an intelligence agent and became Oriental Secretary to the High Commission in Basra. ... When Winston Churchill was made Colonial Secretary in 1921, he summoned his greatest experts on the Middle East to a conference in Egypt to determine the future of Mesopotamia. There were 39 men and Gertrude Bell. In 1921, she was asked to draw up the borders of the new nation of Iraq and helped choose its first ruler, Prince Faisal. For years she was one of Churchill's closest personal and political advisers, a position that earned her the title of 'Uncrowned Queen of Iraq'. As her political role in Iraq declined with the new regime in power, she returned to her first love - archaeology. In 1923 she became Honorary Director of Antiquities in Iraq and established the Baghdad Museum."

    Photo 1: "Bell analysed the political situation ahead of elections" [in 1921 Iraq]

    Photo 2: "Letter from British High Commissioner to the Colonial Office, 1927. This letter reveals the request by King Faisal for part of the Baghdad Museum to be named after Bell."

This site is edited by Belgian archaeologist Francis Deblauwe, Ph.D., living in Streamwood, Illinois (USA), who is affiliated with Archaeos, Inc., and a research associate of the University of Vienna (Austria).